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# Styling Markers in Python

How to style markers in Python with Plotly.

In order to make markers look more distinct, you can add a border to the markers. This can be achieved by adding the line property to the marker object.

Here is an example of adding a marker border to a faceted scatter plot created using Plotly Express.

In [1]:
import plotly.express as px

iris = px.data.iris()
fig = px.scatter(iris, x="sepal_width", y="sepal_length", color="species")

fig.update_traces(marker=dict(size=12,
line=dict(width=2,
color='DarkSlateGrey')),
selector=dict(mode='markers'))
fig.show()


Here is an example that creates an empty graph object figure, and then adds two scatter traces with a marker border.

In [2]:
import plotly.graph_objects as go

# Generate example data
import numpy as np
np.random.seed(1)

x = np.random.uniform(low=3, high=6, size=(500,))
y = np.random.uniform(low=3, high=6, size=(500,))

# Build figure
fig = go.Figure()

# Add scatter trace with medium sized markers
go.Scatter(
mode='markers',
x=x,
y=y,
marker=dict(
color='LightSkyBlue',
size=20,
line=dict(
color='MediumPurple',
width=2
)
),
showlegend=False
)
)

# Add trace with large marker
go.Scatter(
mode='markers',
x=[2],
y=[4.5],
marker=dict(
color='LightSkyBlue',
size=120,
line=dict(
color='MediumPurple',
width=12
)
),
showlegend=False
)
)

fig.show()


Fully opaque, the default setting, is useful for non-overlapping markers. When many points overlap it can be hard to observe density.

### Opacity¶

Setting opacity outside the marker will set the opacity of the trace. Thus, it will allow greater visbility of additional traces but like fully opaque it is hard to distinguish density.

In [3]:
import plotly.graph_objects as go

# Generate example data
import numpy as np

x = np.random.uniform(low=3, high=6, size=(500,))
y = np.random.uniform(low=3, high=4.5, size=(500,))
x2 = np.random.uniform(low=3, high=6, size=(500,))
y2 = np.random.uniform(low=4.5, high=6, size=(500,))

# Build figure
fig = go.Figure()

# Add first scatter trace with medium sized markers
go.Scatter(
mode='markers',
x=x,
y=y,
opacity=0.5,
marker=dict(
color='LightSkyBlue',
size=20,
line=dict(
color='MediumPurple',
width=2
)
),
name='Opacity 0.5'
)
)

# Add second scatter trace with medium sized markers
# and opacity 1.0
go.Scatter(
mode='markers',
x=x2,
y=y2,
marker=dict(
color='LightSkyBlue',
size=20,
line=dict(
color='MediumPurple',
width=2
)
),
name='Opacity 1.0'
)
)

# Add trace with large markers
go.Scatter(
mode='markers',
x=[2, 2],
y=[4.25, 4.75],
opacity=0.5,
marker=dict(
color='LightSkyBlue',
size=80,
line=dict(
color='MediumPurple',
width=8
)
),
showlegend=False
)
)

fig.show()


### Marker Opacity¶

To maximise visibility of density, it is recommended to set the opacity inside the marker marker:{opacity:0.5}. If mulitple traces exist with high density, consider using marker opacity in conjunction with trace opacity.

In [4]:
import plotly.graph_objects as go

# Generate example data
import numpy as np

x = np.random.uniform(low=3, high=6, size=(500,))
y = np.random.uniform(low=3, high=6, size=(500,))

# Build figure
fig = go.Figure()

# Add scatter trace with medium sized markers
go.Scatter(
mode='markers',
x=x,
y=y,
marker=dict(
color='LightSkyBlue',
size=20,
opacity=0.5,
line=dict(
color='MediumPurple',
width=2
)
),
showlegend=False
)
)

# Add trace with large markers
go.Scatter(
mode='markers',
x=[2, 2],
y=[4.25, 4.75],
marker=dict(
color='LightSkyBlue',
size=80,
opacity=0.5,
line=dict(
color='MediumPurple',
width=8
)
),
showlegend=False
)
)

fig.show()


### Color Opacity¶

To maximise visibility of each point, set the color as an rgba string that includes an alpha value of 0.5.

This example sets the marker color to 'rgba(135, 206, 250, 0.5)'. The rgb values of 135, 206, and 250 are from the definition of the LightSkyBlue named CSS color that is is used in the previous examples (See https://www.color-hex.com/color/87cefa). The marker line will remain opaque.

In [5]:
import plotly.graph_objects as go

# Generate example data
import numpy as np

x = np.random.uniform(low=3, high=6, size=(500,))
y = np.random.uniform(low=3, high=6, size=(500,))

# Build figure
fig = go.Figure()

# Add scatter trace with medium sized markers
go.Scatter(
mode='markers',
x=x,
y=y,
marker=dict(
color='rgba(135, 206, 250, 0.5)',
size=20,
line=dict(
color='MediumPurple',
width=2
)
),
showlegend=False
)
)

# Add trace with large markers
go.Scatter(
mode='markers',
x=[2, 2],
y=[4.25, 4.75],
marker=dict(
color='rgba(135, 206, 250, 0.5)',
size=80,
line=dict(
color='MediumPurple',
width=8
)
),
showlegend=False
)
)

fig.show()