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Text and Annotations in Python

How to add text labels and annotations to plots in python.

Text scatter plot with Plotly Express

Here is an example that creates a scatter plot with text labels using Plotly Express.

In [1]:
import plotly.express as px

gapminder = px.data.gapminder().query("year==2007 and continent=='Americas'")

fig = px.scatter(gapminder, x="gdpPercap", y="lifeExp", text="country", log_x=True, size_max=60)

fig.update_traces(textposition='top center')

fig.update_layout(
    height=800,
    title_text='GDP and Life Expectancy (Americas, 2007)'
)

fig.show()

Adding Text to Data in Line and Scatter Plots

In [2]:
import plotly.graph_objects as go

fig = go.Figure()

fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(
    x=[0, 1, 2],
    y=[1, 1, 1],
    mode="lines+markers+text",
    name="Lines, Markers and Text",
    text=["Text A", "Text B", "Text C"],
    textposition="top center"
))

fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(
    x=[0, 1, 2],
    y=[2, 2, 2],
    mode="markers+text",
    name="Markers and Text",
    text=["Text D", "Text E", "Text F"],
    textposition="bottom center"
))

fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(
    x=[0, 1, 2],
    y=[3, 3, 3],
    mode="lines+text",
    name="Lines and Text",
    text=["Text G", "Text H", "Text I"],
    textposition="bottom center"
))

fig.show()

Adding Hover Text to Data in Line and Scatter Plots

In [3]:
import plotly.graph_objects as go

fig = go.Figure()

fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(
    x=[0, 1, 2],
    y=[1, 3, 2],
    mode="markers",
    hovertext=["Text A", "Text B", "Text C"]
))

fig.update_layout(title_text="Hover over the points to see the text")

fig.show()

Simple Annotation

Annotations can be added to a figure using fig.update_layout(annotations=[...]) or fig.add_annotation.

In [4]:
import plotly.graph_objects as go

fig = go.Figure()

fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(
    x=[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8],
    y=[0, 1, 3, 2, 4, 3, 4, 6, 5]
))

fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(
    x=[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8],
    y=[0, 4, 5, 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2]
))

fig.update_layout(
    showlegend=False,
    annotations=[
        go.layout.Annotation(
            x=2,
            y=5,
            xref="x",
            yref="y",
            text="dict Text",
            showarrow=True,
            arrowhead=7,
            ax=0,
            ay=-40
        )
    ]
)

fig.show()

Multiple Annotations

In [5]:
import plotly.graph_objects as go

fig = go.Figure()

fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(
    x=[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8],
    y=[0, 1, 3, 2, 4, 3, 4, 6, 5]
))


fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(
    x=[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8],
    y=[0, 4, 5, 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2]
))

fig.add_annotation(
    go.layout.Annotation(
            x=2,
            y=5,
            text="dict Text")
)
fig.add_annotation(
    go.layout.Annotation(
            x=4,
            y=4,
            text="dict Text 2")
)
fig.update_annotations(dict(
            xref="x",
            yref="y",
            showarrow=True,
            arrowhead=7,
            ax=0,
            ay=-40
))

fig.update_layout(showlegend=False)

fig.show()

3D Annotations

In [6]:
import plotly.graph_objects as go

fig = go.Figure()

fig.add_trace(go.Scatter3d(
    x=["2017-01-01", "2017-02-10", "2017-03-20"],
    y=["A", "B", "C"],
    z=[1, 1000, 100000],
    name="z",
))

fig.update_layout(
    scene=go.layout.Scene(
        aspectratio=dict(
            x=1,
            y=1,
            z=1
        ),
        camera=dict(
            center=dict(
                x=0,
                y=0,
                z=0
            ),
            eye=dict(
                x=1.96903462608,
                y=-1.09022831971,
                z=0.405345349304
            ),
            up=dict(
                x=0,
                y=0,
                z=1
            )
        ),
        dragmode="turntable",
        xaxis=dict(
            title_text="",
            type="date"
        ),
        yaxis=dict(
            title_text="",
            type="category"
        ),
        zaxis=dict(
            title_text="",
            type="log"
        ),
        annotations=[dict(
            showarrow=False,
            x="2017-01-01",
            y="A",
            z=0,
            text="Point 1",
            xanchor="left",
            xshift=10,
            opacity=0.7
        ), dict(
            x="2017-02-10",
            y="B",
            z=4,
            text="Point 2",
            textangle=0,
            ax=0,
            ay=-75,
            font=dict(
                color="black",
                size=12
            ),
            arrowcolor="black",
            arrowsize=3,
            arrowwidth=1,
            arrowhead=1
        ), dict(
            x="2017-03-20",
            y="C",
            z=5,
            ax=50,
            ay=0,
            text="Point 3",
            arrowhead=1,
            xanchor="left",
            yanchor="bottom"
        )]
    ),
    xaxis=dict(title_text="x"),
    yaxis=dict(title_text="y")
)

fig.show()

Custom Text Color and Styling

In [7]:
import plotly.graph_objects as go

fig = go.Figure()

fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(
    x=[0, 1, 2],
    y=[1, 1, 1],
    mode="lines+markers+text",
    name="Lines, Markers and Text",
    text=["Text A", "Text B", "Text C"],
    textposition="top right",
    textfont=dict(
        family="sans serif",
        size=18,
        color="crimson"
    )
))

fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(
    x=[0, 1, 2],
    y=[2, 2, 2],
    mode="lines+markers+text",
    name="Lines and Text",
    text=["Text G", "Text H", "Text I"],
    textposition="bottom center",
    textfont=dict(
        family="sans serif",
        size=18,
        color="LightSeaGreen"
    )
))

fig.update_layout(showlegend=False)

fig.show()

Styling and Coloring Annotations

In [8]:
import plotly.graph_objects as go

fig = go.Figure()

fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(
    x=[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8],
    y=[0, 1, 3, 2, 4, 3, 4, 6, 5]
))

fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(
    x=[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8],
    y=[0, 4, 5, 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2]
))

fig.add_annotation(
    go.layout.Annotation(
        x=2,
        y=5,
        xref="x",
        yref="y",
        text="max=5",
        showarrow=True,
        font=dict(
            family="Courier New, monospace",
            size=16,
            color="#ffffff"
            ),
        align="center",
        arrowhead=2,
        arrowsize=1,
        arrowwidth=2,
        arrowcolor="#636363",
        ax=20,
        ay=-30,
        bordercolor="#c7c7c7",
        borderwidth=2,
        borderpad=4,
        bgcolor="#ff7f0e",
        opacity=0.8
        )
)

fig.update_layout(showlegend=False)
fig.show()

Disabling Hover Text

In [9]:
import plotly.graph_objects as go

fig = go.Figure()

fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(
    x=[1, 2, 3, ],
    y=[10, 30, 15],
    name="first trace",
    hoverinfo="none"
))

fig.show()

Text Font as an Array - Styling Each Text Element

In [10]:
import plotly.graph_objects as go

fig = go.Figure()

fig.add_trace(go.Scattergeo(
    lat=[45.5, 43.4, 49.13, 51.1, 53.34, 45.24, 44.64, 48.25, 49.89, 50.45],
    lon=[-73.57, -79.24, -123.06, -114.1, -113.28, -75.43, -63.57, -123.21, -97.13,
         -104.6],
    marker={
        "color": ["MidnightBlue", "IndianRed", "MediumPurple", "Orange", "Crimson",
                  "LightSeaGreen", "RoyalBlue", "LightSalmon", "DarkOrange", "MediumSlateBlue"],
        "line": {
            "width": 1
        },
        "size": 10
    },
    mode="markers+text",
    name="",
    text=["Montreal", "Toronto", "Vancouver", "Calgary", "Edmonton", "Ottawa",
          "Halifax",
          "Victoria", "Winnepeg", "Regina"],
    textfont={
        "color": ["MidnightBlue", "IndianRed", "MediumPurple", "Gold", "Crimson",
                  "LightSeaGreen",
                  "RoyalBlue", "LightSalmon", "DarkOrange", "MediumSlateBlue"],
        "family": ["Arial, sans-serif", "Balto, sans-serif", "Courier New, monospace",
                   "Droid Sans, sans-serif", "Droid Serif, serif",
                   "Droid Sans Mono, sans-serif",
                   "Gravitas One, cursive", "Old Standard TT, serif",
                   "Open Sans, sans-serif",
                   "PT Sans Narrow, sans-serif", "Raleway, sans-serif",
                   "Times New Roman, Times, serif"],
        "size": [22, 21, 20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13]
    },
    textposition=["top center", "middle left", "top center", "bottom center",
                  "top right",
                  "middle left", "bottom right", "bottom left", "top right",
                  "top right"]
))

fig.update_layout(
    title_text="Canadian cities",
    geo=go.layout.Geo(
        lataxis=dict(range=[40, 70]),
        lonaxis=dict(range=[-130, -55]),
        scope="north america"
    )
)

fig.show()

Adding Annotations with xref and yref as Paper

In [11]:
import plotly.graph_objects as go

fig = go.Figure()

fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(
    x=[1, 2, 3],
    y=[1, 2, 3],
    name="y",
))

fig.update_layout(
    annotations=[
        go.layout.Annotation(
            x=0.5,
            y=-0.15,
            showarrow=False,
            text="Custom x-axis title",
            xref="paper",
            yref="paper"
        ),
        go.layout.Annotation(
            x=-0.07,
            y=0.5,
            showarrow=False,
            text="Custom y-axis title",
            textangle=-90,
            xref="paper",
            yref="paper"
        )
    ],
    autosize=True,
    margin=dict(
        b=100
    ),
    title_text="Plot Title",
    xaxis=dict(
        autorange=False,
        range=[-0.05674507980728292, -0.0527310420933204],
        type="linear"
    ),
    yaxis=dict(
        autorange=False,
        range=[1.2876210047544652, 1.2977732997811402],
        type="linear"
    ),
    height=550,
    width=1137
)

fig.show()

Customize Displayed Text with a Text Template

To show an arbitrary text in your chart you can use texttemplate, which is a template string used for rendering the information, and will override textinfo. This template string can include variables in %{variable} format, numbers in d3-format's syntax, and date in d3-time-fomrat's syntax. texttemplate customizes the text that appears on your plot vs. hovertemplate that customizes the tooltip text.

In [12]:
import plotly.graph_objects as go

fig = go.Figure(go.Pie(
    values = [40000000, 20000000, 30000000, 10000000],
    labels = ["Wages", "Operating expenses", "Cost of sales", "Insurance"],
    texttemplate = "%{label}: %{value:$,s} <br>(%{percent})",
    textposition = "inside"))

fig.show()

Customize Text Template

The following example uses textfont to customize the added text.

In [13]:
import plotly.graph_objects as go

fig = go.Figure(go.Scatterternary(
    a = [3, 2, 5],
    b = [2, 5, 2],
    c = [5, 2, 2],
    mode = "markers+text",
    text = ["A", "B", "C"],
    texttemplate = "%{text}<br>(%{a:.2f}, %{b:.2f}, %{c:.2f})",
    textposition = "bottom center",
    textfont = {'family': "Times", 'size': [18, 21, 20], 'color': ["IndianRed", "MediumPurple", "DarkOrange"]}
))

fig.show()

Set Date in Text Template

The following example shows how to show date by setting axis.type in funnel charts. As you can see textinfo and texttemplate have the same functionality when you want to determine 'just' the trace information on the graph.

In [14]:
from plotly import graph_objects as go

fig = go.Figure()

fig.add_trace(go.Funnel(
    name = 'Montreal',
    orientation = "h",
    y = ["2018-01-01", "2018-07-01", "2019-01-01", "2020-01-01"],
    x = [100, 60, 40, 20],
    textposition = "inside",
    texttemplate = "%{y| %a. %_d %b %Y}"))

fig.add_trace(go.Funnel(
    name = 'Vancouver',
    orientation = "h",
    y = ["2018-01-01", "2018-07-01", "2019-01-01", "2020-01-01"],
    x = [90, 70, 50, 10],
    textposition = "inside",
    textinfo = "label"))

fig.update_layout(yaxis = {'type': 'date'})

fig.show()

Reference

See https://plot.ly/python/reference/#layout-annotations for more information and chart attribute options!