plotly.subplots: helper function for laying out multi-plot figures

make_subplots([rows, cols, shared_xaxes, …])

Return an instance of plotly.graph_objs.Figure with predefined subplots configured in ‘layout’.

plotly.subplots.make_subplots(rows=1, cols=1, shared_xaxes=False, shared_yaxes=False, start_cell='top-left', print_grid=False, horizontal_spacing=None, vertical_spacing=None, subplot_titles=None, column_widths=None, row_heights=None, specs=None, insets=None, column_titles=None, row_titles=None, x_title=None, y_title=None, **kwargs)

Return an instance of plotly.graph_objs.Figure with predefined subplots configured in ‘layout’.

Parameters
  • rows (int (default 1)) – Number of rows in the subplot grid. Must be greater than zero.

  • cols (int (default 1)) – Number of columns in the subplot grid. Must be greater than zero.

  • shared_xaxes (boolean or str (default False)) –

    Assign shared (linked) x-axes for 2D cartesian subplots

    • True or ‘columns’: Share axes among subplots in the same column

    • ’rows’: Share axes among subplots in the same row

    • ’all’: Share axes across all subplots in the grid.

  • shared_yaxes (boolean or str (default False)) –

    Assign shared (linked) y-axes for 2D cartesian subplots

    • ’columns’: Share axes among subplots in the same column

    • True or ‘rows’: Share axes among subplots in the same row

    • ’all’: Share axes across all subplots in the grid.

  • start_cell ('bottom-left' or 'top-left' (default 'top-left')) –

    Choose the starting cell in the subplot grid used to set the domains_grid of the subplots.

    • ’top-left’: Subplots are numbered with (1, 1) in the top

      left corner

    • ’bottom-left’: Subplots are numbererd with (1, 1) in the bottom

      left corner

  • print_grid (boolean (default True):) – If True, prints a string representation of the plot grid. Grid may also be printed using the Figure.print_grid() method on the resulting figure.

  • horizontal_spacing (float (default 0.2 / cols)) –

    Space between subplot columns in normalized plot coordinates. Must be a float between 0 and 1.

    Applies to all columns (use ‘specs’ subplot-dependents spacing)

  • vertical_spacing (float (default 0.3 / rows)) –

    Space between subplot rows in normalized plot coordinates. Must be a float between 0 and 1.

    Applies to all rows (use ‘specs’ subplot-dependents spacing)

  • subplot_titles (list of str or None (default None)) –

    Title of each subplot as a list in row-major ordering.

    Empty strings (“”) can be included in the list if no subplot title is desired in that space so that the titles are properly indexed.

  • specs (list of lists of dict or None (default None)) –

    Per subplot specifications of subplot type, row/column spanning, and spacing.

    ex1: specs=[[{}, {}], [{‘colspan’: 2}, None]]

    ex2: specs=[[{‘rowspan’: 2}, {}], [None, {}]]

    • Indices of the outer list correspond to subplot grid rows starting from the top, if start_cell=’top-left’, or bottom, if start_cell=’bottom-left’. The number of rows in ‘specs’ must be equal to ‘rows’.

    • Indices of the inner lists correspond to subplot grid columns starting from the left. The number of columns in ‘specs’ must be equal to ‘cols’.

    • Each item in the ‘specs’ list corresponds to one subplot in a subplot grid. (N.B. The subplot grid has exactly ‘rows’ times ‘cols’ cells.)

    • Use None for a blank a subplot cell (or to move past a col/row span).

    • Note that specs[0][0] has the specs of the ‘start_cell’ subplot.

    • Each item in ‘specs’ is a dictionary.

      The available keys are: * type (string, default ‘xy’): Subplot type. One of

      • ’xy’: 2D Cartesian subplot type for scatter, bar, etc.

      • ’scene’: 3D Cartesian subplot for scatter3d, cone, etc.

      • ’polar’: Polar subplot for scatterpolar, barpolar, etc.

      • ’ternary’: Ternary subplot for scatterternary

      • ’mapbox’: Mapbox subplot for scattermapbox

      • ’domain’: Subplot type for traces that are individually

        positioned. pie, parcoords, parcats, etc.

      • trace type: A trace type which will be used to determine

        the appropriate subplot type for that trace

      • secondary_y (bool, default False): If True, create a secondary

        y-axis positioned on the right side of the subplot. Only valid if type=’xy’.

      • colspan (int, default 1): number of subplot columns

        for this subplot to span.

      • rowspan (int, default 1): number of subplot rows

        for this subplot to span.

      • l (float, default 0.0): padding left of cell

      • r (float, default 0.0): padding right of cell

      • t (float, default 0.0): padding right of cell

      • b (float, default 0.0): padding bottom of cell

    • Note: Use ‘horizontal_spacing’ and ‘vertical_spacing’ to adjust the spacing in between the subplots.

  • insets (list of dict or None (default None):) –

    Inset specifications. Insets are subplots that overlay grid subplots

    • Each item in ‘insets’ is a dictionary.

      The available keys are:

      • cell (tuple, default=(1,1)): (row, col) index of the

        subplot cell to overlay inset axes onto.

      • type (string, default ‘xy’): Subplot type

      • l (float, default=0.0): padding left of inset

        in fraction of cell width

      • w (float or ‘to_end’, default=’to_end’) inset width

        in fraction of cell width (‘to_end’: to cell right edge)

      • b (float, default=0.0): padding bottom of inset

        in fraction of cell height

      • h (float or ‘to_end’, default=’to_end’) inset height

        in fraction of cell height (‘to_end’: to cell top edge)

  • column_widths (list of numbers or None (default None)) –

    list of length cols of the relative widths of each column of suplots. Values are normalized internally and used to distribute overall width of the figure (excluding padding) among the columns.

    For backward compatibility, may also be specified using the column_width keyword argument.

  • row_heights (list of numbers or None (default None)) –

    list of length rows of the relative heights of each row of subplots. If start_cell=’top-left’ then row heights are applied top to bottom. Otherwise, if start_cell=’bottom-left’ then row heights are applied bottom to top.

    For backward compatibility, may also be specified using the row_width kwarg. If specified as row_width, then the width values are applied from bottom to top regardless of the value of start_cell. This matches the legacy behavior of the row_width argument.

  • column_titles (list of str or None (default None)) – list of length cols of titles to place above the top subplot in each column.

  • row_titles (list of str or None (default None)) – list of length rows of titles to place on the right side of each row of subplots. If start_cell=’top-left’ then row titles are applied top to bottom. Otherwise, if start_cell=’bottom-left’ then row titles are applied bottom to top.

  • x_title (str or None (default None)) – Title to place below the bottom row of subplots, centered horizontally

  • y_title (str or None (default None)) – Title to place to the left of the left column of subplots, centered vertically

Examples

Example 1:

>>> # Stack two subplots vertically, and add a scatter trace to each
>>> from plotly.subplots import make_subplots
>>> import plotly.graph_objects as go
>>> fig = make_subplots(rows=2)

This is the format of your plot grid: [ (1,1) xaxis1,yaxis1 ] [ (2,1) xaxis2,yaxis2 ]

>>> fig.add_scatter(y=[2, 1, 3], row=1, col=1) 
Figure(...)
>>> fig.add_scatter(y=[1, 3, 2], row=2, col=1) 
Figure(...)

or see Figure.append_trace

Example 2:

>>> # Stack a scatter plot
>>> fig = make_subplots(rows=2, shared_xaxes=True)

This is the format of your plot grid: [ (1,1) xaxis1,yaxis1 ] [ (2,1) xaxis2,yaxis2 ]

>>> fig.add_scatter(y=[2, 1, 3], row=1, col=1) 
Figure(...)
>>> fig.add_scatter(y=[1, 3, 2], row=2, col=1) 
Figure(...)

Example 3:

>>> # irregular subplot layout (more examples below under 'specs')
>>> fig = make_subplots(rows=2, cols=2,
...                     specs=[[{}, {}],
...                     [{'colspan': 2}, None]])

This is the format of your plot grid: [ (1,1) xaxis1,yaxis1 ] [ (1,2) xaxis2,yaxis2 ] [ (2,1) xaxis3,yaxis3 - ]

>>> fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(x=[1,2,3], y=[2,1,2]), row=1, col=1) 
Figure(...)
>>> fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(x=[1,2,3], y=[2,1,2]), row=1, col=2) 
Figure(...)
>>> fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(x=[1,2,3], y=[2,1,2]), row=2, col=1) 
Figure(...)

Example 4:

>>> # insets
>>> fig = make_subplots(insets=[{'cell': (1,1), 'l': 0.7, 'b': 0.3}])

This is the format of your plot grid: [ (1,1) xaxis1,yaxis1 ]

With insets: [ xaxis2,yaxis2 ] over [ (1,1) xaxis1,yaxis1 ]

>>> fig.add_scatter(x=[1,2,3], y=[2,1,1]) 
Figure(...)
>>> fig.add_scatter(x=[1,2,3], y=[2,1,2], xaxis='x2', yaxis='y2') 
Figure(...)

Example 5:

>>> # include subplot titles
>>> fig = make_subplots(rows=2, subplot_titles=('Plot 1','Plot 2'))

This is the format of your plot grid: [ (1,1) x1,y1 ] [ (2,1) x2,y2 ]

>>> fig.add_scatter(x=[1,2,3], y=[2,1,2], row=1, col=1) 
Figure(...)
>>> fig.add_bar(x=[1,2,3], y=[2,1,2], row=2, col=1) 
Figure(...)

Example 6:

Subplot with mixed subplot types

>>> fig = make_subplots(rows=2, cols=2,
...                     specs=[[{'type': 'xy'},    {'type': 'polar'}],
...                            [{'type': 'scene'}, {'type': 'ternary'}]])
>>> fig.add_traces(
...     [go.Scatter(y=[2, 3, 1]),
...      go.Scatterpolar(r=[1, 3, 2], theta=[0, 45, 90]),
...      go.Scatter3d(x=[1, 2, 1], y=[2, 3, 1], z=[0, 3, 5]),
...      go.Scatterternary(a=[0.1, 0.2, 0.1],
...                        b=[0.2, 0.3, 0.1],
...                        c=[0.7, 0.5, 0.8])],
...     rows=[1, 1, 2, 2],
...     cols=[1, 2, 1, 2]) 
Figure(...)